1. p. 40
"Instead, it was by looking at specific examples
of practice that we found guidance
for our work and, in discussing
exactly how those examples were
relevant to us, began to develop our
2. p. 42
focused on those aspects we want
to promote in future designs. Our
theoretical work didn’t just concern
what is, but what ought to be."
"So, how could
design count as research?"
"Coinciding with a
general trend for computing to be
applied in all aspects of everyday
life, design seems to offer the ability
to reflect emotional, aesthetic,
cultural, and critical concerns
alongside those of functionality
"The outcomes offered by design often take the form of prototype products and systems, sometimes developed to a high degree of finish technically, physically, and aesthetically, and sometimes accompanied by accounts of field trials of these products in use or in exhibitions.
In addition, “manifestos” occasionally appear, arguing for the value of “supple” or “ludic” or “reflective” design as a direction for future work."
that enough to make design a form
of research, or is it merely fodder (飼料) to
be turned into research by others?"
"Methodologies and theories may well produce respectable research, but the danger is that this
will come at the expense of design." (方法論與理論可能會產出值得尊敬的研究, 但是其危險是以犧牲設計為代價)
4. p. 43
"These choices are varied, multifaceted, and heterogeneous. They reflect a very wide range of concerns that
- the functionality of the design
- its aesthetics
- the practicalities of its production
- the motivation for making
- the identities and capabilities of the people for whom the artifact is intended
- sociopolitical concerns
"From this point of view, a
designed artifact can be seen
as a kind of position statement
from its designers, not
only about what is important to
consider in a given design situation,
but also about how to best
respond to those considerations."
"The trouble with this perspective on artifacts, however, is that neither dimensions of concern nor
designers’ orientations to them can be read directly from the artifacts themselves." (設計考量與設計師的想法無法從設計物本身解讀出來)
"we point out what
makes the design new and valuable,
rather than leaving the artifact to
speak for itself—as if it could."
"Much of our knowledge of making is tacit."
文字對 design 的角色:
"This means that textual accounts (e.g., published papers, catalog entries, online descriptions) in design research have an indexical character. That is, they point to features of our designs and connect them to matters of further concern, in the case of research, making them topical for discussion within a given community. "
"On the contrary, we see textual accounts of artifacts, including any theoretical pronouncements about them, as annotations. The textual account
achieves its sense and relevance by virtue of its indexical connection
with an artifact."
"This line of reasoning implies that designs need to be annotated if
they are to make clear and accountable contributions to research. "
5. p. 44
a single design occupies a point in
design space, a collection of designs
by the same or related designers
establishes an area in that space.
A single artifact embodies propositions about a specific configuration of properties. A comparison
of multiple items in a portfolio, on
the other hand, can make clear
a domain of design, its relevant
dimensions, and the designer’s
opinion about the fruitful locations
and configurations to develop on
"An annotated portfolio, then, is
a means for explicating design
thinking that retains an intimate
indexical connection with artifacts
themselves while addressing broader concerns in the research community. "
6. p. 45
Photostroller and the Prayer
Companion construe their senior
users not as individuals requiring
medical care or assistance with living, but as people who are actively
curious and engaged with the wider
"In each case also, the form of the
device has been carefully crafted to
be mindful of several concerns: the
everyday settings in which it is likely to be used, the affordances of the
materials and technologies used in
construction, culturally significant
aesthetic traditions that are drawn
upon, and so forth."
7. p. 48
"Annotated portfolios might take the
form of videos, or a stage show, or
a collection of postcards. "
"We propose the notion of annotated
portfolios as a way to communicate design research. In part, we
do this to provide an alternative to
accounts that suggest for design to
become productive as research,..."
"Rather than predict the future,
we seek to inspire novel work and
offer a mapping of the dimensions of emerging design spaces
in which it might be situated."
"Any particular set of annotations is perspectival, allowing
other annotations to be made.
Annotations allow family resemblances to be reasoned about,
rather than theoretical deductions to be made. "
may help us understand its successes and failings and inspire
future work, but the logic seems
to us rather different from that
governing theory construction and
hypothesis testing, at least as those
processes are typically described
by writers who call for more rigor
in design research or for theoretical or methodological integration
with more traditional approaches."
"We feel reasoning about portfolios is a practice
that is indigenous (固有的, 與生俱來的）to design and,
accordingly, many designers in
HCI will feel more comfortable
working up annotated portfolios
than having to integrate their
work with theoretical constructs
that may not have had a clear
role in motivating what they do. "
"Annotated portfolios do not
propose a format of presentation or
a set of concerns to be addressed.
They do not mandate (命令） a particular graphical style, or prescribe (指定) a
series of categories to be employed,
or advocate (提倡) an elaborate ontology （精緻的本體論）
of entities and relationships.
"In some sense, what we are offering
here is a methodology for communicating design research, but not
a restricted toolkit of methods."